Communication in Asia
ObjectivesInfinitive and gerund phrases Reported speech
The smallest of the world’s eight bear species, sun bears, usually live alone and are happy to spend most their time by themselves when not looking for a mate. They spend their days looking for fruit, nuts, birds and insects in Southeast Asia’s tropical forests.
Although sun bears mostly live alone, scientists surprisingly discovered that they have developed a new form of communication by mimicking or copying other bears’ facial expressions.
Researchers studied 22 sun bears at the Malaysia’s Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Center where the bears live in outdoor forest cages big enough to let them decide whether to play together or stay away from each other most of the day.
In their study, scientists found that sun bears mimicked not only the kind of expression, but also the exact muscular movements the other bear made—such as raising or wrinkling their noses.
The ability to mimic facial expressions is found in humans, gorillas, orangutans, some monkeys, and even domesticated dogs. But until now, only humans and gorillas have shown the ability to exactly copy complex faces.
The study found that sun bears, however, are just as good at facial mimicry as humans and gorillas. This surprised researchers; not only because sun bears are usually solitary, but also because they are not closely related to humans.
Derry Taylor is a doctoral student in psychology at the University of Portsmouth in England. He is one of the authors of the study, which was published in Scientific Reports.
Taylor said, “It seems that some forms of communication are much more widely shared amongst mammalian species than we previously thought.”
Sun bears have a black coat and a white or golden color on their mid-section. They live in trees and eat both plants and animals. They can grow to be up to 1.4 meters in height and 65 kilograms in weight.
Although they live alone in the wild, the bears in the study often played gently with each other. Sometimes they even played with faster actions and behaviors, such as hitting and biting.
It remains uncertain what messages the bears were sending to one another. But the facial copying might be a signal that they are ready to move from gentle to rougher play, Taylor suggested.
Adapted from: https://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/making-faces-is-fun-for-sun-bears/4846923.html